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Patient Education

Resources for Patients

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Orthopedic Spine & Sports Therapy strives to keep our patients educated on any, and all physical conditions.  Click the links below to learn more about physical ailments of the human body.

 

Head - Spine - Shoulder - Elbow - Wrist - Hand - Hip - Knee - Ankle - Foot

 

 

Head

Cervicogenic Headaches:

  • Cervicogenic Headaches, in comparison to other forms of headaches, are usually related to a musculoskeletal impairment in the cervical spine.

  • Cervicogenic headaches may be caused by external pressure or and awkward position of the neck.  It is commonly related to trauma, degenerative changes, or postural strain.

  • Cervicogenic headaches generally start in the posterior aspects of the base of the skull and travel up the head.  Cervicogenic headaches may also adversely affect neck mobility. Symptoms may fluctuate in intensity.  Symptoms are also usually unilateral.


Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Dysfunction:

  • TMJ dysfunction is a term given to describe a group of conditions involving the TMJ.  The TMJ is a small joint that connects the mandible and the temporal bones in the head.

  • The cause of TMJ dysfunction include damage/strain to the muscles surrounding the joint, whiplash, grinding/clenching teeth, dislocation of the disc within the joint, arthritis, and stress.

  • TMJ dysfunction can cause pain that is worse during or after eating or yawning. It can cause limited jaw movement and clicks/pops during chewing.  In severe cases, pain can radiate into the neck, shoulders and back.

 


Spine

Herniated Disc:

  • The spine itself is made of many components.  The bones in the back are called vertebrae.  Between the vertebrae are disc that act as cushions.  Each inter-vertebral disc is made of two parts.  The inner part is a gelatinous material, called the nucleus pulposus, which is held in my bands of fibrous tissue, called the annulus fibrosis.  As aging occurs, the discs become dehydrated and are at a higher risk of injury.  Tears and cracks can occur in the annulus fibrosis, allowing the nucleus pulposus to move from its proper location and irritate other structures associated with the spine, such as nervous tissue.

  • Common causes of a herniated disc include repetitive or prolonged flexing of the trunk, lifting, twisting and sitting.  All of these activities can add stress put pressure on inter-vertebral disc causing the annulus fibrosis to potentially tear.

  • Symptoms of a herniated disc can vary. If the disc herniated near a structure such as a nerve, the symptoms can include back pain, numbness or tingling, or muscle weakness into the extremities.  If the disc herniated without irritating the nerve the main symptoms is back pain, although pain many not always be present.


Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD):

  • Degenerative disc disease is not really a disease but a term used to describe the normal changes in the inter-vertebral discs as you age.  Inter-vertebral discs are soft, compressible discs that separate the vertebrae that make up the spine. The discs act as shock absorbers for the spine, allowing it to flex, bend, and twist. As aging occurs the inter-vertebral disc naturally losses fluid and develops small tears which can lead to further damage to the spine.

  • The most common cause of DDD is natural age related changes that occur to the inter-vertebral disc.

  • The symptoms of degenerative disc disease can vary depending on if any other structure associated with the spine is involved.  Pain can vary from minimal to severe located in the back or neck. Symptoms, including numbness, tingling, and weakness, may also occur in the extremities.


Spondylolysis:

  • The vertebrae of the spine consist of many bony projections that actually make many small joints between two individual vertebrae.  A spondylolysis occurs when one or two of the wing like projections on the bottom of a vertebra becomes fractured. Spondylolysis is usually detected sometime during childhood.

  • It may occur due to defects in the bone from birth, overuse injury, or normal changes associated with aging.  This may progress into a spondylolisthesis.

  • The main symptom of a spondylolysis is back pain, most commonly in the low back.


Spondylolisthesis:

  • Spondylolisthesis occurs when one vertebra slips forward on the vertebra below it in the spine.  Between two vertebrae in the spine there are many small joints that all interact with each other to keep the spine in proper alignment.  Spondylolisthesis occurs when one of these joints become damaged, allowing for the anterior translation to occur.

  • This can be caused by defects in the bone since birth, injury or trauma, or overuse injury.  This type of injury is commonly seen in sports such as gymnastics or weight lifting.

  • Symptoms of spondylolisthesis may include pain in the back, buttocks, or legs, numbness, weakness, difficulty walking, loss of bladder or bowel control.  Pain may increase with movement.  However, sometimes spondylolisthesis can have no symptoms.


Spondylosis:

  • Spondylosis is more commonly known as arthritis of the spine. As aging occurs normal wear and tear can occur at all the joints within the spine, causing a degeneration of these joints.  This may include damage to the cartilage within the joints.  It is most common in the neck region.

  • Spondylosis can be caused by changes that occur during the natural aging process, previous injuries to the spine, and behavior patterns of movement.

  • Symptoms of spondylosis can vary depending on the involvement of other structures associated with the spine.  If the spinal cord/nerves are not involved symptoms may include pain, stiffness, headaches, pain into the arms, and a grinding noise or sensation with movement.  When the spinal cord becomes irritated, possibly due to compression, it is know called a cervical myelopathy. The symptoms of cervical myelopathy may include tingling, numbness, weakness, lack of coordination, difficulty walking, abnormal reflexes, muscle spasms and loss of bowel or bladder control.


Spinal Stenosis:

  • Each vertebra that makes up the spine has a large hole in which the spinal cord can course through.  Spinal stenosis occurs when this hole becomes narrower, which can compress the spinal cord and the spinal nerves.

  • Spinal stenosis can be caused by changes that occur during the natural aging process, arthritis, defects in the bone from birth, instabilities in the spine, tumors, or injury.

  • Symptoms of spinal stenosis can vary depending on which structures associated with the spine become involved.  Common symptoms can include back pain.  If the spinal cord or nerves become involved symptoms can include tingling, numbness, weakness, and abnormal reflexes.


Radiculopathy (Sciatica or Pinched Nerve):

  • Radiculopathy is the damage or disturbance of nerve function.  With a radiculopathy the nerve is no longer working properly, which can give symptoms throughout the body.

  • A common cause of a radiculopathy is an injury to an inter-vertebral disc, such as a herniation or bulge.

  • A true radiculopathy must have one of three main symptoms including decrease reflexes, decrease sensation, and/or muscle weakness to the areas innervated by that specific nerve root.  Other symptoms include pain, numbness, and tingling in the back or extremities.



Radiculitis (Pinched Nerve):

  • Radiculitis is an irritation of a nerve at the nerve root, located in the inter-vertebral foreman which is where the nerve exists in the spine.

  • This irritation can be caused by compression, constriction, or stretching of the nerve. Unlike a radiculopathy, with a radiculitis the nerve is still functioning properly.

  • The symptoms include pain, numbness, tingling in the back or extremities.


Hypermobility:

  • Hypermobility is a condition where synovial joints move beyond normal limits.  Specifically related to the spine, hypermobility is where the inter-vertebral disc and ligaments do not maintain the appropriate axis of the spine.  This can lead to excessive movement between two vertebrae.

  • Hypermobility may be inherited or acquired. Acquired hypermobility can be due to excessive stretching, such as in dancers or gymnast.  Hypermobility may also be caused by connective tissue disease or damage.

  • Hypermobility may cause no symptoms. When symptoms, such as wide spread pain, feeling of stiffness, clicking/popping, or dislocations, do occur hypermobility can be classified has Joint Hypermobility Syndrome.  Hypermobility may further lead to a radiculitis or radiculopathy.


Cervicogenic Headaches:

  • Cervicogenic Headaches, in comparison to other forms of headaches, are usually related to a musculoskeletal impairment in the cervical spine.

  • Cervicogenic headaches may be caused by external pressure or and awkward position of the neck.  It is commonly related to trauma, degenerative changes, or postural strain.

  • Cervicogenic headaches generally start in the posterior aspects of the base of the skull and travel up the head.  Cervicogenic headaches may also adversely affect neck mobility. Symptoms may fluctuate in intensity.  Symptoms are also usually unilateral.


Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Dysfunction:

  • TMJ dysfunction is a term given to describe a group of conditions involving the TMJ.  The TMJ is a small joint that connects the mandible and the temporal bones in the head.

  • The cause of TMJ dysfunction include damage/strain to the muscles surrounding the joint, whiplash, grinding/clenching teeth, dislocation of the disc within the joint, arthritis, and stress.

  • TMJ dysfunction can cause pain that is worse during or after eating or yawning. It can cause limited jaw movement and clicks/pops during chewing.  In severe cases, pain can radiate into the neck, shoulders and back.

 

 

 

Shoulder

Dislocation:

  • A shoulder dislocation occurs when the head of the humerus becomes dislodged from the glenoid fossa of the scapula. A dislocation means 100% of the joint surfaces have lost contact.  A subluxation is like a dislocation but there is still contact between the two joint surfaces.  Once a dislocation occurs the shoulder will be loose, which could lead to chronic dislocations.

  • This most often occurs when the arm is abducted and externally rotated in combination with an external force being applied, such as a fall or collision.  Dislocation can also occur with a direct blow to the posterior shoulder, pushing the humeral head anteriorly.

  • Symptoms can include severe pain, and difficultly moving the arm. The shoulder will generally be positioned in slight abduction and external rotation, with the forearm being supported by a sling.  There may also be a noticeable fullness in the anterior shoulder.


SLAP (Superior Labrum from Anterior to Posterior) Lesion:

  • Around the glenoid fossa of the scapula, or socket of the shoulder, is a piece of cartilage, called the labrum, which help provide extra stability to the shoulder joint.  In a SLAP lesion this cartilage is torn across the top part of the cartilage, starting in the front and going to the back.

  • This injury is commonly caused by trauma, such as a fall or bracing for an accident, or repetitive overhead activities.

  • Symptoms often include an ache within the shoulder, popping or clicking, and pain with specific movements.  


Rotator Cuff Tear:

  • The rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscles and their tendons that have converge around the shoulder, providing extra stability to the joint.  When these tendons and muscles are stressed, they can either partially or completely tear.

  • Most tears develop gradually, but can also occur abruptly. The most common causes of a rotator cuff tear are overuse injury, irritation to the tendons, or trauma.

  • Symptoms can change depending on the acutely of the injury.  An acute rotator cuff tear can present with pain, instability, weakness, and possible inability to lift the arm.  Chronic rotator cuff tears can present with limited range of motion, pain, weakness, and adhesive capsulitis.

  • Severe rotator cuff tears will require surgery to repair. General anesthesia is given before surgery. There are a few different surgical techniques ranging from an arthroscopic procedure, requiring only a few little holes, to opening the shoulder, which requires a 2-3 inch incision.  These surgical techniques are used to remove debris, make more room for the tendons, and/or sewing the tendon back together. After surgery a sling is required.  Pain, weakness, and limited motion are to be expected.  Strengthening exercises generally do not begin until 6-8 weeks after surgery.


Impingement:

  • Impingement is the compression of structures, such as the rotator cuff tendons, in the anterior aspect of the shoulder between the humeral head and the coracoacromial arch.  There are four grades of impingement that are dependent on the underlying causes.

  • Impingement can be primary, which is caused by a mechanical impingement.  This could be causes by a rotator cuff pathology from muscle imbalances, repetitive micro trauma, or degeneration of a tendon (tendonosis).  Secondary impingement means that the underlying cause of the impingement is from other indirect factors such as instability of the scapula or glenohumeral joint.

  • The typical symptoms of impingement syndrome include pain, weakness, and difficulty reaching up or behind the back.


Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder):

  • The joint involved with adhesive capsulitis is the joint that is made between the head of humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula. Around this joint there is a capsule, which is connective tissue, along with other ligaments, all of which help provide stability to the joint.  There are three phases of adhesive capsulitis.  Phase I is the painful/freezing phase, which last 10-36 weeks.  Phase II is the stiff phase, which can last 4-12 months.  Phase III is the recovery phase, which can last 2 months to 2 years.

  • The most common cause of adhesive capsulitis is idiopathic, meaning it can have no apparent cause. However it can be caused by not using the shoulder joint normally, such as after an injury.

  • The Symptoms include pain, stiffness, and limited range of active and passive motion. During phase I, severe pain can be present, especially at night.  The pain may also radiate down the arm.  During phase II, the pain will decrease, but severe restrictions in movement will be seen.  During phase III, there will be a slow recovery of the lost movement.


Bicipital Tendinitis:

  • Bicipital tendinitis is inflammation of the bicep brachii muscles.  The two tendons that make up the biceps are found in the anterior portion of the upper arm and shoulder.  The most problematic area of the biceps tendon is in the intertubercular sulcus, or groove on the front of the humerus, where it courses up towards the shoulder joint.

  • Common symptoms of bicipital tendonitis include shoulder pain that be travel down the front of the arm, tenderness over the biceps tendon, and decrease shoulder movement.

  • Common causes include overuse, inflammatory diseases, injuries, or infection.  The bicep muscle acts to elevate the shoulder and bend the elbow. It’s the repetitive imbalances within the shoulder above horizontal that can cause bicipital tendinitis.

 

 


Elbow

Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow):

  • Lateral epicondylitis is caused when there is damage to the tendons that attach on the outside of the elbow.  These tendons belong to the muscles found on the posterior forearm.

  • This is commonly a cause of an overuse injury to these tendons, which commonly occur with repetitive wrist extension.  A direct trauma to the elbow can also cause damage to the tendon.

  • Symptoms of lateral epicondylitis include a gradual onset of a dull achy pain on the outside of the elbow, tenderness, and morning stiffness.  Over time, degeneration of the tissue can occur, which can cause chronic pain and it is now termed lateral epicondylosis. 


Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer’s Elbow):

  • Medial epicondylitis is caused when there is damage to the tendons that attach on the inside of the elbow.  These tendons belong to the muscles found on the anterior forearm.

  • This is commonly a cause of an overuse injury to these tendons, which commonly occur with repetitive wrist flexion and pronation.

  • Symptoms include gradual onset of pain and tenderness over the inside of the elbow.  Over time, degeneration of the tissue can occur, which can cause chronic pain and is now termed medial epicondylosis.


Little League Elbow:

  • Little league elbow is an avulsion of the medial epicondlye of the humerus.  This can include many diseases/disorders including: Panner’s Disease, OCD, medial epicondyle fracture, apophysitis, posterior osteophyte formation, and medial ligament rupture.

  • The most common cause of this disorder is repetitive overuse and stress overload.  This is common in children who are in the process of growing because the bone is immature and not as strong.

  • Affected patients may experience pain with activity, stiffness, and restricted range of motion of the elbow.

 

 


Wrist

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when one nerve, the median nerve, which passes through a tunnel in the anterior wrist becomes compressed.  Once the nerve is compressed, it can become irritated producing symptoms.

  • This can be caused by swelling of surrounding tissues, or dislocation/fracture of a wrist bone.  It can also be caused by having the wrist positioned in flexion or extension for long periods, such as while sleeping.

  • Symptoms include numbness, tingling, pain, and weakness in the thumb, index, and middle fingers.  Symptoms are mainly in the hand and fingers. Rarely do the symptoms travel up into the forearm, if they do then it is probably related to the neck.  The muscles at the base of the thumb may atrophy.  Performing daily activities tends to aggravate these symptoms.

Scaphoid Fracture:

  • A scaphoid fracture is a break to one of the eight bones that make up the wrist. The scaphoid is one of the small bones located on the lateral, or thumb side, of the wrist.  Healing can be slow and difficult without treatment because parts of the scaphoid bone do not have a good blood supply.

  • A scaphoid fracture can commonly occur when your wrist is severely twisted, or trauma occurs, such as a hard hit to the wrist or falling on an outstretched hand.

  • Symptoms may include pain, tenderness, bruising and swelling of the wrist near the base of the thumb.

Colles’ Fracture:

  • A Colles' fracture is often thought of as the classic ''broken wrist.''  It is a break of one or both of the bones in the forearm, the radius and ulna. The bone breaks closer to the distal end.

  • Fracture is generally caused by trauma including falling on an outstretched arm or being hit in the wrist.

  • Symptoms of a colles’ fracture include pain, tenderness, swelling, bruising, or deformity of the wrist.


DeQuervain's Syndrome:

  • DeQuervain's syndrome is swelling and inflammation of the tendons and the tendon sheath of two specific muscles of the thumb.

  • While the cause of DeQuervain’s syndrome is thought to occur from an injury to the tendon or an overuse injury, such as having a forceful grasp while moving repetitively through ulnar deviation.

  • Symptoms may include swelling, a grating feeling in the wrist, and pain and weakness along the thumb, wrist, and forearm.


Ganglion Cyst:

  • A ganglion cyst is a swelling or systic tumor that appears on a tendon.  It can be soft or firm.  Cyst are common both on the anterior and posterior wrist.

  • The cause of a ganglion cyst is unknown.

  • Symptoms include tenderness with palpation and pain at the end of the range of motion.

 

 

 

Hand

DeQuervain's Syndrome:

  • DeQuervain's syndrome is swelling and inflammation of the tendons and the tendon sheath of two specific muscles of the thumb.

  • While the cause of DeQuervain’s syndrome is thought to occur from an injury to the tendon or an overuse injury, such as having a forceful grasp while moving repetitively through ulnar deviation.

  • Symptoms may include swelling, a grating feeling in the wrist, and pain and weakness along the thumb, wrist, and forearm.

 

 

 

Hip

Hip Fracture:

  • Most hip fractures occur to neck of the femur.

  • In older adults the most common cause are falls.  In children and younger adults the most common causes are bike/car accidents or sports injury.  Most hip fractures are due to trauma unless underlying disease, such as osteoporosis, is present.

  • Symptoms of a hip fracture include severe pain of a sudden onset in the groin, buttock, or down the leg, decrease range of motion, and inability to walk or weight bear through the involved leg.

  • Most hip fractures require surgery to fix.  Surgery can range from having plates, screws, or rods in/around the broken area of the femur, to having a partial or full hip replacement.

Hip Replacement:

  • Hip replacement surgery is used when an arthritic or painful hip is replaced by an artificial hip.  Surgery should be used when other treatment options are no longer controlling the symptoms from arthritis.

  • There are a few different procedures used for a hip replacement, which are determined by the doctor who is performing the surgery.  The patient will first be put under general anesthesia.  Depending on the procedure used there will be one or two incisions.  The joint surfaces, including the acetabulum of the hip bone and the head of the femur, are replaced. 

  • After the surgery minimal pain and swelling can be expected.  There are some restrictions after the surgery including limiting hip internal rotation, adduction, and flexion.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome (Snapping Hip Syndrome, Runner’s Knee):

  • The iliotibial band, or IT band, is a thick tissue running along the outside of the thigh.  This band can become overdeveloped or tight, and rub against different bony protuberances on the femur.   

  • A common cause of iliotibial band syndrome is overuse injuries, such as running or cycling.  This can also be caused by improper warm up, decreased flexibility, and having a tight iliotibial band.

  • Symptoms can include pain in the knee or hip and snapping on the outside of the hip.  The pain generally gets better with rest.  


Bursitis:

  • Bursae are small fluid filled sacs that cushion and lubrication between muscles, tendons, and bones.  Bursitis can occur in many areas throughout the hip, but the most common is trochanteric bursitis.

  • Trochanteric bursitis can be caused by an acute injury, prolonged pressure on a bursa, or activities that require repeated twisting or rapid joint movement. These activities may lead to irritation or inflammation within the bursa. 

  • Symptoms may include pain in the buttock, hip or outside of the thigh/knee, tender to the touch, swelling, redness, and warmth.

 

 

 

Knee

ACL:

  • The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the ligaments in the knee that joins the femur to the tibia and restricts forward displacement of the tibia.  When the ligament is injured it can cause instability of the knee.   An ACL injury is classified as grade I, II, or III, depending on the amount of anterior translation that occurs.

  • An ACL tear commonly occurs traumatically while playing sports with the foot planted and then hyperextended, twisted, or bent to the side.  It can also be caused by a blow to the anterior knee, causing the knee to hyperextend. 

  • Symptoms include hearing a pop or snap at the time of injury, pain on the outside or back of the knee, swelling, decrease range of motion, buckling, giving out or feeling of instability. 

  • If a major tear is found on an MRI it may require surgery to improve the stability of the knee.  Most ACL reconstructions consist of the torn ligament being replaced by a graft, which can be taken from the hamstring tendon, the patellar ligament, or a cadaver.  This is done under general anesthesia.  Small incisions are made on the front of the knee. Immediately after surgery, swelling, pain, decrease strength and decreased range of motion are to be expected.  

Knee Replacement:

  • Knee replacements are used to alleviate the symptoms of arthritis.  After years of wear and tear to the knee joint, the cartilage with in the joint can become damaged.  The damage to the cartilage can cause pain, stiffness, and loss of range of motion. A knee replacement should be considered when other treatments are no longer working and the symptoms are interfering with the basic daily activities. 

  • Once you are under general anesthesia, an eight- to twelve-inch cut is made in the front of the knee. The surfaces of the femur and tibia are shaped to hold a metal or plastic artificial joint, which is attached either with cement or a special material. The attached artificial parts form the joint, relying on the surrounding muscles and ligaments for support and function.

  • Immediately after surgery swelling, minimal to moderate pain, decrease strength and a decreased range of motion can be expected.  

Meniscus Tear:

  • The meniscus is the cartilage of the knee.  The meniscus is actually made of two separate pieces of cartilage that are “C” shaped.  The menisci help with shock absorption in the knee and provide stability to the joint.  Meniscal tears can occur in different locations of the meniscus and at varying degrees. 

  • A meniscus tear is usually caused by twisting or turning quickly, often with the foot planted. These tears commonly occur with sports. As aging occurs the meniscus can become damaged, making it easier to tear.

  • Symptoms of a meniscus tear are dependent on the severity of the tear.  The symptoms can include mild to severe pain at the side or center of the knee, stiffness, swelling, popping, clicking, locking, or instability.  

  • Surgery may be recommended depending on the severity and location of the tear.  The surgery either repairs or removes the damaged cartilage.  This is commonly involves a few small holes around the knee for incision sites and is done under general anesthesia.  Symptoms after surgery can vary depending on the type of surgery, severity of the tear, and other factors.  

Chondromalacia Patellae:

  • A chondromalacia patellae is degeneration of the cartilage on the underside of the patella. This may be caused by overuse, traumatic injury to the cartilage, abnormal tracking of the patella, excessive forces, or abnormal loading of the patellofemoral joint. 

  • Chondromalacia Patellae is pain in anterior knee. The pain may get worse when sitting with bent knees, squatting, jumping, or using the stairs.

  • Surgery involves arthroscopic debridement to decrease pain.

Patellar Tendinitis:

  • Tendinitis occurs when the tendon, or tissue that connects muscle to bone, become irritated and inflamed.  The patellar tendon comes from the quadriceps muscle and spans from the patella to the tibial tuberosity.  The quadriceps muscle and tendon extend the knee. 

  • The most common causes of tendinitis are overuse injuries.  In the knee it is commonly caused by repetitive jumping, running, or squatting.

  • Symptoms include pain and tenderness over the patellar tendon.  Early in the condition pain is usually present at the beginning of an activity, lessens during the activity, and worsens after the activity.  

Osgood-Schlatter Condition:

  • Osgood-Schlatter condition is characterized by micro fractures to the tibial tuberosity, a bump on the top part of the tibia where the quadriceps tendon attaches.  These micro fractures cause the bone to pull apart and essentially get larger where the tendon inserts.

  • This is commonly caused by an overuse injury.  It is more prevalent in teens going through a growth spurt because the tendon is stronger than the bone.  It is also associated with patellar misalignment.

  • Symptoms of Osgood-Schlatter condition include pain and tenderness with activity.  Pain is usually resolved when the tibial tuberosity fuses back with the tibia.

 

 

 


Ankle

Ankle Sprain:

  • An ankle sprain occurs when the ligaments around the ankle joint have been stretched or torn.  Ankle sprains are graded on a scale of 1-3.  Grade III is the most severe because the ligament or ligaments are completely torn. Ankle sprains can occur on either the outside of the ankle, a lateral ankle sprain, or on the inside of the ankle, a medial ankle sprain.

  • The most common ankle sprain is the lateral ankle, and the most often injured ligament is the anterior talofibular ligament. Having previous ankle sprains, improper footwear, or performing an activity on an uneven surface can increase the risk of an ankle sprain.

  • Symptoms of an ankle sprain include mild to severe pain, swelling, popping/snapping sound during the injury, difficulty moving the ankle, bruising, and instability of the ankle.

Hammer Toe:

  • Hammer or claw toe is when the toe become permanently bent resembling a hammer.

  • Common causes include wear improper footwear, muscle, joint, or nerve damage.

  • Symptoms include pain and improper alignment of mainly the four little toes.

Bunion:

  • A bunion is growth of extra bone at the base of the big toe.  As the growth becomes larger, the big toe will begin to point toward the remaining toes.

  • Common causes include improper bony alignment or make up of the foot, having flat feet, and wearing improper shoes.

  • Symptoms can be minimal, but can also include pain, swelling at the base of the big toe, and skin irritation.

  • Severe bunions can be treated with surgery.  This is mostly an outpatient procedure which can use regional or general anesthetics.  There are many different types of bunion surgeries, but most include a small incision on the top or side of the base of the big toe.  The different surgical techniques are used to remove and realign tissues with the foot and toe.  Some surgeries have restrictions including not putting weight on the surgical limb, or wearing a cast or splint.

Plantarfascitis:

  • The Plantar Fascia is the flat band of tissue that connects your calcaneus to your phalanges and supports the arch of your foot. This fascia can become irritated with repetitive strains causing the plantar fascia to develop microtears and become inflamed.

  • Common causes include improper alignment of the foot, having flat feet or high archs, being overweight, wearing improper footwear, or excessive pronation during activities such as walking, running, and standing.

  • Symptoms include stiffness after long periods of rest, pain of gradual onset to the medial plantar aspect of the foot.  Pain is generally worse in the morning and when weight bearing.

 

 

 

Foot

Hammer toe:

  • Hammer or claw toe is when the toe become permanently bent resembling a hammer.

  • Common causes include wear improper footwear, muscle, joint, or nerve damage.

  • Symptoms include pain and improper alignment of mainly the four little toes.


Bunion:

  • A bunion is growth of extra bone at the base of the big toe.  As the growth becomes larger, the big toe will begin to point toward the remaining toes.

  • Common causes include improper bony alignment or make up of the foot, having flat feet, and wearing improper shoes.

  • Symptoms can be minimal, but can also include pain, swelling at the base of the big toe, and skin irritation.

  • Severe bunions can be treated with surgery.  This is mostly an outpatient procedure which can use regional or general anesthetics.  There are many different types of bunion surgeries, but most include a small incision on the top or side of the base of the big toe.  The different surgical techniques are used to remove and realign tissues with the foot and toe.  Some surgeries have restrictions including not putting weight on the surgical limb, or wearing a cast or splint.


Plantarfascitis:

  • The Plantar Fascia is the flat band of tissue that connects your calcaneus to your phalanges and supports the arch of your foot. This fascia can become irritated with repetitive strains causing the plantar fascia to develop microtears and become inflamed.

  • Common causes include improper alignment of the foot, having flat feet or high archs, being overweight, wearing improper footwear, or excessive pronation during activities such as walking, running, and standing.

  • Symptoms include stiffness after long periods of rest, pain of gradual onset to the medial plantar aspect of the foot.  Pain is generally worse in the morning and when weight bearing.